Nik Sergeev - Wood Sculptures


Australian woods are unique and considered exotic in the rest of the world. Australia is a country of Eucalypts (800 species) and Acacias (600 species) with many tree species located in a very limited area. Below you can find some information on trees I have carved and their timbers.

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Eucalyptus coolabah

Family: Myrtaceae

Other names: Smooth-barked coolabah

Locations. Coolabah is a species of the arid and semi-arid zones of Australia. It is characteristically a species of very open savannah around the edges of swamps and lagoons or in the open belts along water courses. E. coolabah is very similar to E. microtheca. The main external difference is that the latter has completely smooth bark.

Western coolabah (Eucalyptus victrix). Found on floodplains in the north-west of the country, western coolabah was originally considered to be a form of coolabah proper (Eucalyptus coolabah), but differs in its attractive stark white trunk. It is a small-to-medium sized, slow-growing tree with an open habit and lanceolate grey-green leaves. The small white flowers occur over summer.

Photo by Cas Liber

Naming. The plant is commonly called "coolabah" or "coolibah", the name being a loanword from the Indigenous Australian Yuwaaliyaay tribe word, "gulabaa".

Appearance. Coolabah is generally a small tree, 15-21 m in height, with a moderately-to-poorly formed bole 1/4 to 1/3 of the height of the whole tree, and up to 1 m in diameter. The tree has an open, straggly crown and a trunk only up to 1 m to the first large branches. Bark usually remains on the trunk and large branches.

It is shortly sub-fibrous, rough and grey to almost black (Eucalyptus coolabah) or smooth and white (Eucalyptus victrix).

Uses. The timber of coolabah is used to a limited extent for fencing and fuel.

Properties. The tree produces some of the hardest and densest timber on Earth. The wood is dark-brown to black, with numerous vessels with white contents. The timber is hard, very dense and durable and has interlocked grain. Sapwood is whitish and narrow. It is insect-resistant.


Xanthorrhoea Preissii

Family: Mimosaceae

Other names: Black boy

What is it? Grasstree or "Black boy" is uniquely Australian and a common part of the Australian landscape. It fascinated the first European settlers, since grasstree was unlike any other known plant. In fact, it is a living relic developed early in the evolutionary stakes for flowering plants.

The grasstree is actually not a tree, but a woody plant. It is related to the lilies, but is placed in a separate family. They are close relatives with the sagg (Lomandra longifolia) with which it shares many attributes.

Location. Grasstrees grow in all the states of Australia. There are a total of 15 species, 7 of which are to be found in Western Australia.

Appearance. This plant can grow to a height of over 4 m and often has branches.

Branch development is considered to be caused by bushfire.

The trunk takes a decade or more to form as it is composed of a mass of old leaf bases bound together by the plant's natural resin. The trunk at the top bears a skirt of long narrow and tough grass-like leaves up to a meter or more in length. The plants are very slow growing, with growth rate of only about 1 m per 100 years.

However, the flowering stalk grows at a rate of 2-3 cm per day reaching to a height of over 3 m. Mature plants will result in flowering every 2-3 years.

The flower stalk appears as a long cylindrical spike (1 to 3 m) rising out of the skirt of leaves, often flowering as a direct response to a very recent bushfire. This ability to be one of the first flowers to appear after a fire ensures a food source for many insects and birds, in an otherwise alien, blackened moonscape environment. The tops of these spikes are covered with a dense pattern of tiny white-to-yellow florets. These in turn produce seed capsules containing a few hard black seeds.

Timber properties. The wood-like material sought after by wood-turners is only found in the West Australian species Xanthorrhoea Preissii; this species is mostly found in the south-western corner of the state. The "wood" is really compressed and bonded fibres, and the spots or dots one sees on a turned piece are the centre marks of the previous leaves. It displays rich colours from golden honey through to dark-brown, almost black. The "grain "pattern is thought to be caused by the different growing conditions e.g. drought, floods and bushfires.

The woody piece is formed at the root level, and the fibrous material bonds it together with the trunk.

Unless the grasstree has been dead for several years, and the fibrous material has composted away, it is near impossible to harvest the woody cores. The cores are rarely large enough to make more than one article. Turning the cores or stumps is dusty, one doesn't cut shavings as with proper wood, just coarse sawdust-like dust, which is a health hazard, and proper precautions need to be taken.

Uses. The plant was very useful for Aborigines in tool crafting.

The light, straight flower stalk served as a butt-piece for spears. A tip section of tea tree would then be attached to the end of the spear and hardened in the fire before used for hunting. Mainland Aborigines used pieces of very dry flower stalk for making fire with a drilling stick.

The leaves produce a hard waterproof resin, which could be collected from the base of the trunk. This resin melts when heated, but sets hard when cold. It had a number of uses including:

  • Forming glue by mixing it with charcoal, beeswax or fine sand and dust.
  • Gluing the cement stone heads to wooden handles and spears to shafts and tips.
  • Waterproofing bark canoes and water carrying vessels.

The versatility of this resin in the everyday lives of the Aborigines made it a valuable trading item and was traded amongst tribes for other important collectables. The grasstree "wood" is extensively used by Australian woodturners. The wood provides a rich variety of colours and grain patterns and is an exciting medium to work with, in spite of the hazardous dust problem.

Huon pine

Lagarostrobos franklinii Hook.f.

Family: Podocarpaceae

Other names: Macquarie pine, White pine

Related species. The tree is not a true pine. It is closely related to Dacridium cupressinium Soland, from New Zealand known as "rimu".

Locations. Huon pine grows nowhere else on Earth but in the cool wet rainforests of the west coast of Tasmania.

History of the name. The tree was called after Captain Jean-Michel Huon de Kermadec, commander of the French ship L'Esperance. Captain de Kermadec was one of lieutenants of the French expedition dispatched in 1791 to the Pacific to search for vanished fellow explorer, Comte de La Perouse. De Kermadec lent his surname to an archipelago in the Pacific. However, his first name was even more widely deployed, attached to the Huon River, the Huon Valley, the Huon Peninsula, the Huon Gulf, Huonville and, most famously, the Huon pine.

Logging Huon pine

(Image courtesy of the Tasmanian Salvaged Resurrection Timbers Pty Ltd)

Logging restrictions. Prior to European settlement, the Huon pine existed in large numbers, but their unique qualities resulted in most trees being felled. (A detailed history of timber industry in Tasmania can be found here. Mining and fire reduced a number of Huon pine trees further. The exploited Tasmanian forests were disappearing at an alarming rate, with very few signs of regenerating. Today, the felling of Huon pine is restricted and the tree is protected within reserves with the majority being within the World Heritage Area.

Huon pines can be seen growing freely along the Denison River. Timber is still available through natural felling that provides craftsmen access to their wood.

Appearance. Huon pine is a moderately tall tree, usually 20-25 m high and up to 0.7 m in diameter, but has been known to grow to 38 m. The trunk is straight, with very little taper, whilst buttresses are rarely developed. It has a slightly rough grey bark which, having been hewn, will weather to a beautiful silver colour.

Huon Pine in a Tasmanian botanical garden (Wikipedia)

Huon pine is one of the slowest-growing and longest-living trees in the world. It grows on average 1 mm per year and it takes 600 years or more to reach tree maturity. The tree can grow to an age of 3000 years or more. In 1994, a stand of Huon pines was discovered on Mount Read, that were existing there, as vegetatively reproducting plants, for over 10 000 years. Pollen records indicate that Huon pine was growing 135 million years ago, when the great super-continent Gondwana existed. Although only found growing in Tasmania, it is related to species in Chile, Malaysia and New Zealand.

Properties. The heartwood is a pale yellow to yellowish-brown with a straight grain and extremely fine texture with very distinct growth rings. It weights about 530 kg/m3. The wood has very low stiffness and resistance to shock loads, medium bending and crushing strengths. It is durable and resistant to insect attack.

The tree contains an essential oil, methyl eugenol, which gives the wood its characteristic smell, repels insects and makes it very durable.

This fragrant softwood is easily wrought with hand and machine tools.

It plains and moulds cleanly, but may tend to split on nailing and require pre-boring. The wood takes glue, stain and polish easily and can be brought to a good finish.

Uses. Huon pine is a very sought-after timber by craftspersons and designer/makers and is in extremely short supply. It is one of the best boat-building timbers due to its durability and natural oil, making it resistant to water penetration. Once cut, logs can remain intact, even in water, for thousands of years. Radio carbon dating indicates that two logs found recently in a west coast river were alive over 7,000 years ago.

The timber is used in cabinet work, joinery, furniture-making; selected logs are sliced for decorative veneers.


Eucalyptus marginata

Family: Myrtaceae

Other names: Swan River mahogany

Location. Jarrah is one of Australia's well known and most important hardwoods which is endemic to the south-western corner of Western Australia. It mainly grows in the relatively wet forests where rainfall is in the 700-1250 mm per annum range.

History. Old growth jarrah and karri forests of Western Australia have been extensively cut since 1880s. At the turn of the 20th century, 50% of Western Australia's timber exports went to Great Britain as street paveing blocks. Currently, despite of relatively poor burning qualities, about 45% of the harvested jarrah is used for firewood and charcoal production (The West Australian, 8 April 2008).

Logging giant jarrah trees near Jarrahdale, 1910s.

(Image courtesy of the Battye Library, Western Australia.)

Image of a jarrah tree: 47 m high, 2.7 m in diameter and 1200 years old.

Photo by Dennis Haugen,

Appearance. Under favourable conditions, jarrah can attain a height of 40 m or more and the trunk diameter can be up to three metres. However in poor conditions it may only grow 2 m high. The tree trunk is long, straight, and has no branches on it. It has rough, greyish-brown fibrous bark which sheds in long flat strips. Mature trees have been known to be over 1000 years old.

Properties. Heartwood shows variety of colours ranging from light-pink to chocolate brown. The darker the colour the older the wood. Jarrah that has been air-dried and exposed to ultra-violet rays for many years is darker than wood that has been kiln dried. Ultimately, all Jarrah will end up a rich chocolate brown with age.

The timber is sometimes marked by short, dark-brown radial flecks on the end grain and boat-shaped flecks on flat sawn surfaces which enhance its decorative value. These marks are caused by fungus Fistulina hepatica. Gum veins or pockets may also be present. The grain is usually straight but often interlocked and wavy. The texture is even but moderately coarse.

The weight is ranging 690-1040 kg/m3 with an average of 800 kg/m3. This heavy timber has high crushing strength and medium bending strength. It is very durable and highly resistant to insect attacks.

The material is rather difficult to work with hand tools, and fairly hard to machine with high resistance to cutting edges and a moderate blunting effect. Gluing properties are good and the wood polishes very well. The only weakness of the jarrah is its sensitivity to direct sunlight. The unprotected timber is darkening over few years even from strong reflected light.

Uses. The long, straight, branch-free bole, durability in wet and weathered conditions and resistance to termites made it the first choice for bridge and wharf construction, railway sleepers, ship building, telegraph poles, house frames and, before the advent of bitumen roads, paving blocks for many city streets in London, Berlin and other European cities.

The finished timber with its magnificent, deep, rich, reddish brown colour and attractive grain is sought after for flooring, panelling, furniture making and has been specified in both commercial and residential projects worldwide.


Dyera constulata & D. lowii

Family: Apocynaceae

Other names: Jelutong bukit, Jelutong paya

Locations. Jelutong has been traditionally overharvested, and is a threatened species in many areas. However, due to its quick growth, hardy survival and strong replanting efforts, its extinction is unlikely. It is a protected species in parts of Malaysia and Thailand. The tree is grown commercially for timber.

Appearance. Jelutong is related to the oleander subfamily. It commonly grows to 60 m in height with up to 2 m in diameter, with some trees found up to 35 m in height. Bole is clear and straight for 30 m. The tree grows in low-elevation tropical evergreen forests of Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra and southern Thailand.

Properties. Although technically a hardwood, jelutong has many properties similar to balsa wood.

Jelutong tree at Tower Forest Park, Kuala Lumpur

It is rather light (460 kg/m3) for a hardwood, soft, brittle, and weak with good stability, low decay resistance, and a poor steam bending rating. Wood is straight-grained with fine, even texture. Creamy-white sapwood and heartwood, maturing to a pale straw-yellow. Works easily with both hand and power tools and planes to a nice, clean surface. Glues, screws, and nails without difficulty. Stains, paints, and varnishes fairly well.

Uses. Popular for model making, patterns, wooden shoes, battery separators, and drawing boards. Also used for interior joinery and corestock for doors. Jelutong is best used for sculpture and carving, architectural models, patternmaking, picture frames, drawing boards and craft work. Latex in the wood was extracted for chewing gum.


Eucalyptus (dwarf form)

Family: Myrtaceae

What are they? Mallee is an Aboriginal name for a dwarf form of eucalypts which are widespread in arid and semi-arid regions, mainly in the southern parts of Australia. Over 50% of approximately 800 species of Eucalyptus are known as mallees.

Farmer's enemies. Australian settlers in the late 1800s clearing the mallee-dominated areas for farming met enormous problems. At first, the farmers simply knocked over the thin mallee stems with horse-drawn balls and chains, burned the vegetation and ploughed the land. Ploughing was extremely difficult as the ploughs were continually being broken by the rock-solid mallee "roots". Many farmers gave up. The stump-jump plough invented in 1876 slightly improved the situation.

However, it wasn't long before the farmers confronted another problem - the amazing ability of mallee eucalypts to regenerate from their rootstocks. New stems grew as quickly as the wheat and no matter how frequently they were cut off they were replaced. Digging out individual roots was far too expensive in time and labour. Some farmers attempted to grow special long-strawed varieties of wheat. The ears of wheat would grow above the mallee shoots; they could then be harvested and the thick stubble which was produced could be burned after the harvest. It was hoped this burning would destroy the mallee stems along with the stubble.

However, after burning, the mallee root-stocks produced even more vigorous shoots. Struggle with mallees took a lot of years of cutting and burning. Today, at least 75% of the original Mallee vegetation in South Australia and about 60-65% in Victoria has been cleared and developed for farming.

That, as usual with human "victories" over nature, created serious ecological problems,

e.g. groundwater and soil salinity and soil erosion.

Dryland salinity has become a major problem for agriculture in the mallee areas and enormous research and monitoring efforts have been made over the past couple of decades.

Ironically, the best ecological solution would appear to be replanting mallees, thus removing any agricultural benefit, so that the water table balance can be restored.

Appearance. Trees grow to a height of 2-9 m and instead of a single trunk, mallees have many stems that rise from a bulbous woody base called a lignotuber, or mallee root. In fact, the mallee root is not a root at all but is essentially a very contracted underground trunk which grows just below the surface and from which the stems arise. It acts as both a storage and reproductive organ.

The "root" is rich in nutrients and stores some water so that the mallee can survive long periods without rain. Multiple growth points allow rapid development of new shoots if the above-ground parts of the plant be destroyed by fire or other natural catastrophes.

Mallee tree near Esperance, southern Western Australia.

Mallee "root" balls.

Photo by Jim Syvertsen

Most other species of Eucalyptus have similar epicormic shoots on their trunks and larger branches from which new shoots can develop after fires but the mallee protects the trunk much more efficiently.

Properties and uses. For many years mallee was only valued as firewood. Today, in spite of the fact that they are extremely hard and therefore difficult to work with, they are prized for their stability and their beautifully marbled grain which takes a superb finish.

Nice examples of the mallee timber colours and textures could be seen on a web, for example here.


Acacia aneura

Family: Mimosaceae

Location. Mulga is a common plant in Australia's dry inland areas. It is the most common member of the genus Acacia, and one of the 880 species of Acacia (75% of the world's Acacias) found in Australia. Mulga grows on flood and erosion plains, and scattered on slopes and ridges. It is generally found in low open woodland or tall shrubland, often in pure stands, but may be found with mallees, low shrubs and grasses.

Naming. Mulga was often used by Aboriginal people to make spears and long narrow shields called "mulgas".

Age. The species has a very wide distribution in Australia and grows in all states except Victoria and Tasmania. Among the acacias, many of which are relatively short-lived, mulga can live for up to 400 years. In favourable conditions young plants will grow at a rate of 1 m every 10 years until the tree reaches its maximum height 7-10 m.

Photo by Murray Henwood

Mulga country, near Meekatharra,

central Western Australia

Reduced rainfall or drought conditions will slow down this process or bring it to a temporary halt, which means that a mature tree will usually be more than 100 years old. The counting of growth rings on felled trees has revealed the stunning number of 150-240 rings in stems of only 25 cm diameter. In their lifetime these trees would have experienced a number of drought years when no growth rings develop and therefore grew older in years than the exact number of growth rings indicate.

The resourceful way in which the plant utilises every drop of moisture assists its survival to such a proud age.

A sophisticated arrangement of its phyllodes and branches ensures that rainwater is channelled to the stem and onto the ground right to its deep taproot (seedlings of only 10 cm height have been found to have taproots reaching 3 m deep into the ground).

(Photography by S.D.Hopper et al.

Appearance. Mulga has varying forms, from a multi-branched shrub of 1 m to a small tree up to 10 m tall. This bird-attracting tree has pretty yellow flowering spikes, which appear after heavy rains.

Properties. The heartwood is dark-brown, with contrasting markings of golden yellow. There is a narrow band of yellowish sapwood. The wood is close-textured and very hard. Wood is very durable, air-dry density is about 1200 kg/m3. Goldfields area craftsmen rate mulga as good for turning, machinability, drilling, screwholding and gluing, and excellent for sanding and finishing.

Uses. The hard and durable wood of mulga was for all central Australian Indigenous groups the most important source of wood for making tools such as spear-throwers, spearheads, barbs, boomerangs and digging sticks. One such a tool, a small, flat shield called "mulga" by one Aboriginal tribe gave the plant its common name. Mulga wood was also used extensively by the early settlers.

It was particularly valuable for fencing, the production of charcoal and for building bullock yokes and the multitude of uses lead to massive clearings of mulga in some areas, further compounded by the devastating impact of feral goats.

To Aboriginal people in Australia, mulga used to be one of the most important plant food sources. After cleaning, the hard-coated seeds were roasted and then ground into a paste similar in taste and texture to peanut butter, but much more nutritious. A sweet exudation, produced by the plant after attack by a sap-sucking insect, was either sucked straight from the plant or dissolved in water to make a refreshing sweet drink. This was also eaten by early settlers who referred to it as "bush lollies".

A white, powdery substance on mulga leaflets and small branches was used as a source of resin for joining tool-parts and for repairing cracks or holes in wooden bowls.

Aborigines in the Northern Territory utilised the healing qualities of mulga in various ways. People suffering from colds used young leaflets and twigs which were picked and boiled in water. The brown, aromatic liquid was then used as a wash. Headaches associated with colds could be eased by heating young leaves and twigs on hot ashes or hot stones until soft and scorching, when they were placed over the aching area.

Red morrell

Eucalyptus longicornis

Family: Myrtaceae

Appearance. Red morrell is a medium-to-tall tree, up to 30 m. The rough grey bark up to the branches has a stringy texture, with smooth grey bark on the branches. The species is common in the inland Western Australia in south-east Goldfields and in the Wheatbelt to Coorow.

Properties. Wood is red to red-brown, strong and durable, used formerly by wheelwrights.

Photo by G.F.Craig.

Courtesy of Western Australian Herbarium.

River red gum

Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Dehnh.

Family: Myrtaceae

Other names: Murray red gum, Queensland blue gum, Red gum

Locations. River red gum is one of the most common inland trees of Australia found along watercourses throughout all states except Tasmania, and is probably the tree which is most synonymous with the Australian outback.

It grows under a wide range of climatic conditions from tropical to temperate, but the main areas are characterised by 5-20 frosts in winter and high summer temperatures.

Related species. The tree is related to the red gum group, comprising about thirty species and varieties. Distinction between species is rather difficult.

River red gum and Tasmanian blue gum are the most widely planted eucalypts overseas.

Photo by D.Kleinig.

The greatest success with river red gum has been in semi-arid areas bordering the Mediterranean, notably in Israel and North Africa.

Appearance. River red gum is a medium-to-moderately-tall tree, usually with a large diameter. It is commonly 25-35 m high, but attains 45 m, whilst diameters are 1-2 m or even greater. The crown is large and in open formation the tree usually has a short thick bole.

Despite of nice shade the tree gives, it is inadvisable to erect a tent or any building under the red gum tree because, during the hot spells of weather, it has a tendency to drop a limb without any warning.

Most of the trees of the red gum group shed patches of their bark each year, so that the surface is relatively smooth, but blotched with various colours. The decorating bark may hang from the trunk in reddish strips, further adding to the pattern of colours.

Properties . The heartwood colour varies according to location and age, from pink to red. The grain is interlocked and frequently wavy which produces a fiddleback figure when quarter cut. The texture is close and even. The wood is resinous with frequent gum pockets. The surface is often distinctly mottled. The specific gravity is 825 kg/m3.

The timber has excellent strength properties but is not used for steam bending due to the exudation of gum. It is very durable with a natural high resistance to insects. The wood is difficult to work with both hand and machine tools due to the presence of gum. The interlocked grain requires a reduced cutting angle of 20 degrees to prevent tear out. Can be brought to a good finish.

Uses. The strong and very durable timber was widely used in the past for housing, heavy construction and fencing.

Today this rich red hardwood is used for furniture, flooring, turning and decorative wood work. In the late 1980s some red gum logs were discovered buried in what was once a swamp, that have been dated at 5000 years old. The timber has turned from deep red to almost black in colour but otherwise has been unaffected.

Parts of the tree are used to treat head colds by the Aborigenes, its foliage is relished by Koalas.

Rose gum

Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden

Family: Myrtaceae

Other names: Flooded gum

Locations. Rose gum is native to the east coast of Australia. The tree is one of the premier forest species in the Australian states of Queensland and New South Wales.

Rose gum is one of the most important commercial Eucalypts, with more than one-half million hectares planted in tropical and subtropical areas on four continents.

Massive planting programs have been carried out in the Republic of South Africa and Brazil, and there are substantial plantings in Angola, Argentina, India, Uruguay, Zaire, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. In southwest Florida rose gum may be an emerging commercial species for plantations.

Appearance. Rose gum is a tall tree ranging in height from 43 to 55 m.

Photo by Andrew Perkins, University of Sydney

The diameters are not large in relation to the height and are usually 1.2-1.8 m. Its form is good with tall, straight, clean trunk up to two-thirds of the total height.

The bark is thin and deciduous, shedding in strips to expose a smooth surface marked with flowing patterns of silvery white, slaty gray, terracotta, or light green. Occasionally a "stocking" of light-gray, plate-like or fissured bark persists over the basal 1 to 2 m on the trunk.

Uses. Rose gum timber is used for general construction, joinery, plywood, panelling, boat building, flooring, utility poles, mine timbers, and posts. It is a very underestimated timber in relation to cabinetry.

Properties. The sapwood of rose gum is pale pink and the heartwood light to dark red. The wood is straight-grained, coarse-textured, and moderately strong. It is moderately durable at best, but the sapwood is generally resistant to Lyctus spp. borers.

The specific gravity varies from

620 to 800 kg/m3, averaging at 750 kg/m3.

The timber is relatively easy to work, dry and glue.

Salmon gum

Eucalyptus salmonophloia

Family: Myrtaceae

Appearance. Probably the best known Eucalypt in the Goldfields and Wheatbelt of Western Australia. It is one of the larger trees of the inland semi-arid areas of Western Australia. Commonly it is 20-25 m in height and up to 0.6 m in diameter. The trunk is relatively short, about one-third of the tree height. Whilst the umbrella-shaped crown is large, it usually has sparse foliage.

The distinctive feature of the salmon gum is salmon pink colour of the underbark; bark usually shed from the trunk in large patches, leaving a smooth salmon pink surface.

"Salmon Gums near Salmon Gum, Esperance Region, WA.

Properties. Wood - pink to red to red-brown; strong, durable and dense at 1070 kg/m3.

Uses. The wood had a long history of use in underground mines, and the dense, fine-grained and attractive timber has gained popularity for panelling and flooring. It is being experimented with in musical instrument manufacture, particularly as flute head joints.


Eucalyptus redunca

Family: Myrtaceae

Other names: White gum

Appearance. Wandoo is commonly called "white gum". Though usually a small tree up to 20 m in height, it is occasionally found up to 35 m in height and 1.2 m in diameter. Wandoo grows in the savannah woodland zone with 380 to 500 mm rainfall in south-west of Western Australia.

The tree has smooth white bark with red patches or occasionally with persistent fibrous, flaky yellow-brown bark over the lower part. The trunk is from a third to half the tree height. The crown is large, but comparatively lightly branched.

Photography by A.Ireland.

Courtesy of Western Australian Herbarium.

Properties The heartwood is yellow to light-reddish-brown, and the sapwood band is very narrow.

Wood is close-textured, with wavy or interlocked grain. Very hard and very strong durable and dense (1100 kg/m3). Bark and wood contain 10-12% tannins.

Uses. The timber is well-suited for use where high strength, durability and resistance to abrasion is needed. Formerly it was used in wheelwright and wagon construction due to high resistance of the wood to chemical reactions with metal fastenings. The timber is used in all forms of light and heavy construction works. It is particularly suitable for heavy duty flooring where strength and hard wearing properties are critical.